Research / Undersøkelser

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After the revival of the making and use of handcrafted soap, the competition of the soap-industry with traditional soap making began, and not in a flattering way. However, also independent scientists started to research the so-called cold-processed soap, or handcrafted soap, and the related pH values. Their research results created trust in what I am making and are going to sell. I archived the most essential researches and publications, so that everybody can find information about the facts.

One of the most striking facts is that soap is never nature-friendly, not either when the soap is natural, organic, not even when soap- and detergent sellers state their product can be used in nature, “because it is biodegradable”. Reason: the pH value of any kind of soap, and the pH value of rivers, oceans, lakes, and soils differ from area to area and are intertwined with the natural balance of each single unique biotope. Nature needs decades to restore its pH level, and mostly it never recovers.

It is therefore important to know how to use soap, what kind of soap, why, where and when. Ingredients are essential. The most simple formula is the best. More than one sort of oil does not make the soap a better one. The oldest soaps date from the Babylonian era, about 2800 B.C., and were olive oil soaps.


  1. Olive oil
  2. Effect of Olive Oil on the Skin
  3. Essential oils
  4. Cold Processed Olive Soap
  5. Herbs
  6. pH values
  7. Children and the use of soap
  8. Skin problems
  9. Ageing of the skin
  10. Handwashing hygiene
  11. Handwashing hygiene and SARS-CoV-2
  12. History of soap and hygiene
  13. Biodynamic, organic, ecological, traditional agriculture
  14. The Psychology and Sociology of Smell

1. Olive oil

  • Olive oil consumption can prevent non-communicable diseases and COVID-19 : Review – PubMed
  • A Great ‘Medicine’ For Coronavirus Is Olive Oil – Article in The Spicy Olive
  • Antioxidant Properties and Fatty Acid Profile of Cretan Extra Virgin Bioolive Oils: A Pilot Study – PubMed / ResearchGate
  • Olive oil production on bronze age Crete: nutritional properties, processing methods and storage life of Minoan olive oil – ResearchGate
  • Extra virgin olive oil: More than a healthy fat – PubMed
  • Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects – NCBI – PMC
  • Potential Health Benefits of Olive Oil and Plant Polyphenols – Pubmed
  • Is olive oil good for you? A systematic review and meta-analysis on anti-inflammatory benefits from regular dietary intake – PubMed
  • Olive oil consumption and human health: A narrative review – PubMed
  • The Effect of Exclusive Olive Oil Consumption on Successful Aging: A Combined Analysis of the ATTICA and MEDIS Epidemiological Studies – PubMed
  • Bioactive Compounds and Quality of Extra Virgin Olive Oil – PubMed
  • Health Benefits of Olive Oil – ResearchGate
  • Beneficial Effects of Olive Oil on Human Health-A Review – ResearchGate
  • Olive oil: what are the health benefits? – Mayo Clinic
  • Why should I choose olive oil over other types of fat? – Mayo Clinic
  • Olive Oil, Sunower Oil or no Oil for Baby Dry Skin or Massage – ResearchGate

2. Effect of Olive Oil on the Skin

  • Effect of Olive Oil on the Skin – ResearchGate
  • Virgin olive oil as a fundamental nutritional component and skin protector – ReasearchGate
  • Olive Oil in Botanical Cosmeceuticals – ResearchGate
  • Enhancement of antioxidant and skin moisturizing effects of olive oil by incorporation into microemulsions – ResearchGate
  • The foundation for the use of olive oil in skin care and botanical cosmeceuticals – ResearchGate

3. Essential oils

  • Essential oils from Cretan herbs may protect against COVID-19 – Medical Life Sciences
  • Entering the European market for essential oils – CBI / EU
  • An Overview of the Biological Effects of Some Mediterranean Essential Oils on Human Health – PubMed
  • Essential oils and Health – PubMed
  • Essential Oils, Part I: Introduction – PubMed
  • Oregano essential oil as an antimicrobial additive to detergent for hand washing and food contact surface cleaning – ResearchGate
  • Antiviral efficacy and mechanisms of action of oregano essential oil and its primary component carvacrol against murine norovirus – PubMed
  • Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria – PubMed
  • Essential Oils of Oregano: Biological Activity beyond Their Antimicrobial Properties – PubMed
  • Carvacrol, a Plant Metabolite Targeting Viral Protease (Mpro) and ACE2 in Host Cells Can Be a Possible Candidate for COVID-19 – Frontiers in Plant Science [[oregano’s principle component is carvacrol, admin]]
  • Oregano Oil and Its Principal Component, Carvacrol, Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion into Target Cells – PubMed
  • Why aromatherapy is showing up in hospital surgical units – Mayo Clinic

4. Cold Processed Olive Soap

  • The Effects of Cold Saponification on the Unsaponified Fatty Acid Composition and Sensory Perception of Commercial Natural Herbal Soaps – PubMed
  • Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil – ResearchGate
  • Effects of soap and detergents on skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration and fat content in infants – PubMed
  • The long-term use of soap does not affect the pH-maintenance mechanism of human skin – PubMed
  • How to Make Soap that’s pH Skin-Friendly – Blog
  • How to pH Test Soap the Right Way & Why It Matters! – Blog
  • Scientific Soapmaking – Website
  • Preparation of Soap Using Different Types of Oils and Exploring its Properties – EThesis
  • Is Body Wash Better than Bar Soap? – Healthline

5. Herbs

  • Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L., syn Salvia rosmarinus Spenn.) and Its Topical Applications: A Review – PubMed
  • Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A Review – PubMed
  • Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture – Studies in pre-modern organic agriculture – Sidestone Press
  • Hildegard’s healing plants: from the medieval classic Physica / by Hildegard von Bingen – Document (209 pages)

6. pH values

Attention: to learn to understand pH values, it is necessary to read all following information about pH. Note: the pH value of ocean water is 8,2; the pH level of a stream is 6,0; drinking water has a level that varies between 6,5 and 8,5; cold processed soap has a level that varies between 9 and 10. Cretan Garden soap pH is 9. The pH of olive oil can not be measured, because it does not contain water, but olive oil is categorized as alkaline.
  • Finding pH Balance – The Holistic Health Approach
  • The pH of water – Water Research Center
  • pH – Natural Range – Typical Discharge Limits – Why are small changes in pH a Cause for Concern – Watery News
  • The influence of pH on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity – ResearchGate
  • Viruses are pH sensitive -in Dutch- Reelyse
  • What pH should my drinking water be? – Healthline
  • Alkaline water, benefits and risks – Healthline
  • Sample records for pH neutral soap –
  • Acid-Alkaline Chart: Food & Chemical Effects on Acid/Alkaline Body Chemical Balance – Pro Health Seminars
  • The concept of the acid mantle of the skin: its relevance for the choice of skin cleansers – PubMed
  • Critical assessment of the pH of children’s soap – PubMed
  • Skin Barrier, Hydration, and pH of the Skin of Infants Under 2 Years of Age – PubMed
  • Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care / Indian Journal of Dermatology – PubMed
  • Soapy Science: Citric Acid in Soap Making – Ultimate pH Soap
  • Skin Physiology of the Neonate and Infant: Clinical Implications – PubMed
  • Amniotic fluid pH value 7,1 – 7,3 – Healthline
  • Skin Physiology of the Neonate and Infant: Clinical Implications / New-borns have alkaline skin surfaces, ranging from 6.34 to 7.5, depending on the anatomical site – PubMed
  • Breast Milk has a pH of 6.35–7.35 – Science Direct
  • pH in the Human Body – News Medial Life Sciences
  • Physiology, Acid Base Balance – PubMed
  • Effect of different oily sources and used alkali concentrations on soap quality – ResearchGate
  • Obesity Linked to pH – Birdsley Health & Wellness Center
  • Acid-base balance and weight gain: Are there crucial links via protein and organic acids in understanding obesity? – ResearchGate
  • What’s a normal blood pH and what makes it change? – Healthline
  • Conformational change of the coronavirus peplomer glycoprotein at pH 8.0 and 37 degrees C correlates with virus aggregation and virus-induced cell fusion – PubMed

Learn also about the anti-organic industry’s playing with pH values of pesticides/insecticides (neonicotinoids), which are the cause of insect-, bee- and bird decline /collapse

Learn also about the pH value of soils

7. Children and the use of soap

  • Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial – PubMed
  • Critical assessment of the pH of children’s soap – PubMed
  • Recommendations from a European Roundtable Meeting on Best Practice Healthy Infant Skin Care – PubMed
  • Baby’s first bath: Changes in skin barrier function after bathing full-term new-borns with water vs liquid baby cleanser – Pubmed
  • Comparison of two different neonatal skin care practices and their influence on trans epidermal water loss in healthy newborns within first 10 days of life – PubMed
  • Skin barrier properties in different body areas in neonates – PubMed
  • Infant Skin Care Products: What Are the Issues? – PubMed
  • Skin Barrier, Hydration, and pH of the Skin of Infants Under 2 Years of Age – PubMed
  • Advice Cretan Garden: Best solution for the safe washing of the skin of new born babies, infants, toddlers and pre-schoolers: all Weleda baby products. Weleda has been growing plants organically and creating natural health and wellbeing products for 100 years – Weleda International. Choose your own country in the drop down menu. Search term: Baby..
  • Skin Physiology of the Neonate and Infant: Clinical Implications – PubMed
  • Amniotic fluid pH value 7,1 – 7,3 – Healthline
  • Skin Physiology of the Neonate and Infant: Clinical Implications / New-borns have alkaline skin surfaces, ranging from 6.34 to 7.5, depending on the anatomical site – PubMed
  • Breast Milk has a pH of 6.35–7.35 – Science Direct

8. Skin problems

9. Aging of the skin

10. Handwashing hygiene

  • Hand-washing: Do’s and don’ts – Mayo Clinic
  • When and How to Wash Your Hands – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Show me the science — Why wash your hands? – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • How germs get onto hands and make people sick
    • Washing hands prevents illnesses and spread of infections to others
    • Not washing hands harms children around the world
    • Handwashing helps battle the rise in antibiotic resistance
  • Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt – ResearchGate

11. Handwashing hygiene and SARS-CoV-2

12. History of soap and hygiene

  • An ancient Cleanser: Soap Production and Use in Antiquity – ResearchGate
  • Soaps and detergents history – Cleaning Institute
  • Then vs. Now: The Dirty History of Personal Hygiene – KTEN
  • History of Hygiene Timeline – History Learning Site
  • Medieval Hygiene – World History
  • A natural history of hygiene – NCBI / PMC
  • A Brief History Of Bathing: The Importance Of Hygiene, From Ancient Rome’s Sophisticated Showers To The Modern Day – Medical Daily
  • A dive into the hygiene of ancient Mediterranean civilizations – Perini Journal
  • A brief history of human filth: how did people try to keep clean in the past? – History Extra
  • Cosmetics, Perfume, & Hygiene in Ancient Egypt – World History
  • History of Hygiene – Board on Pinterest

13. Biodynamic, organic, ecological, traditional agriculture

  • Organic farming – ResearchGate
  • Organic Farming: A new revolution in agriculture – ResearchGate
  • What is this thing called organic? – How organic farming is codified in regulations – ResearchGate

14. The psychology and sociology of smell

  • Your Odor: Unique as Fingerprint – LiveScience
  • What Your Body Odor Says About You – Time
  • What Your Body Odor Says About Your Health – WebMD
  • Smell as a social intermediary – Jstor
  • The Sociology of Odors – Jstor
  • The Subtle Signalling Strength of Smells – Frontiers in Psychology
  • The Psychology of Smell – Spectrio
Photo by Anastasia Shuraeva from Pexels

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